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Aluminum Bleachers used for outdoor events

Bleachers used for outdoor events are typically lightweight, aluminum portable units that are foldable. They are unlike the chair and riser combination that is used indoors. 

Construction 

Although not completely consistent with all manufacturers, portable bleachers generally have a rise of 8 in. (20 cm), a horizontal depth of 24 in. (60 cm), and seats have a rise above the tread of 17 in. (43 cm). Seat sizes are 1.5 to 2.0 in. X 9.5 to 10.0 in. (3.75 to 5 cm X 24 to 25 cm}, all usually constructed of anodized aluminum with end caps. Guardrails arc usually anodized pipe, 1.5 to I .675 in. (3.75 to 4.2 cm) diameter and 42 in. (106 cm) h'gh. These arc normally fitted to the backs, sides, stairs, and fronts of bleacher sections. Sections also come in more or less standard sizes of 3, 5, 10, and 15 row X 15 ft (4.5 m) sections, elevated or non-elevated, with varlous guardrail options, as well as accessibility options to mccr Amcncans with Disabilities Act {ADA) requirements. See Figure 9.6 for an example of a 10-tier, elevated section. 

aluminum bleacher

safety 

The current guiding standard for the design, construction, and inspection of portable bleachers in the USA is contained in IC.C/ANSI 300-2002, Bleachers, Folding and Telescopic Seating, and Grandstands. The International Code Council (ICC.) Initiated the development of this stand-alone standard to address bleacher safety, after the issue was highlighted when two US congressional rep resentatives the Consumer Product Safety Commission to develop such regulations, following a study of deaths and injuries resulting from falls from bleachers. For example, in 1999 in the USA, there were an estimated 22, 100 bleacher-associated injuries treated in hospital emergency rooms. 

LESSONS FROM RECENT AMERICAN STADIUM DESIGNS 

In exploring how new British stadia should be designed, it is instructive to see how new stadia have developed in North America since the 1960s. During the 1960s and 1970s new stadia in the United States tended to be built on open, edge of city sites allowing the new stadium to be surrounded by vast expanses of car parking which was provided to meet the expectations of a public who lived and breathed the automobile. These stadia were often designed as combined sports use stadia which would be convertible between baseball and American football use. During the same period some of the new stadia were built as 'dome' stadia totally enclosed by a fixed roof and with artificial grass fields. 

outdoor grandstand

By the 1990s new stadia were being designed dedicated for baseball or American football use and many of these were destined to supersede stadia built only 30 years previously for combined use. Two reasons can explain this reversal. First, baseball fans found the combined stadia lacked the character ofa Vreal' baseball park with the classic horse-shoe outdoor grandstand configuration and open outfield. Second, major league baseball and American football clubs each became economically strong enough in their own right to justify building separate stadia. One of the first new generation baseball parks to be built was the Oriole Baseball Stadium in Baltimore. Whilst incorporating the type of up-to-date amenities to meet the demands of the modern day spectator the architecture of the stadium reintroduced some of the classic baseball park vernacular, such as exposed steel framework and an asymmetric seating bowls which help evoke a sense of the game's traditions. Other new baseball parks at Cleveland (Jacob's Field) and Atlanta (Turner Field) also feature similar 'retro' style. At Baltimore, the design of the stadium was also effectively integrated into the urban fabric of the city's downtown district with views of an old warehouse featured in the stadium planning. 

It seems that if a new stadium fails to provide a special enough character; paying spectators may begin to wish that they could have their old stadium back. In the United States stadium designers have responded to baseball nostalgia in the newer ballparks in an almost theme park style. Good quality stadium architecture need not, however, rely on a heritage' design style to provide the stadium with appropriate character. It is quite possible for stadia to be designed in a modern style but still include features to endear the stadium to its visitors. Baseball clubs using 'dome' stadia now tend to want to move to stadia with natural grass fields open to the sky allowing the game to be played in its traditional outdoor setting, Despite the advantage of being weatherproof which dome stadia offer, both spectators and players alike seem to prefer the baseball and football games to be played on a natural grass pitch in an outdoor environment, Most new stadia projects in the United States, for either baseball or football, are now designed as either open air stadia or else with retractable overall roofs. 

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Keywords in the article: Aluminum Bleachers, outdoor grandstand